Open Issues in Internet of Things

Issues
Addressing and Naming
Mobility Support
Transport Protocol
M2M Communication
Standards
Traffic Characterization and QoS support
Security
Digital Forgetting
Power Consumption
Bandwidth

Addressing and Naming
Addressing
--IoT requires IPv6 addressing scheme to identify billion of objects.
--IPv6 addresses are expressed by means of 128 bits whereas RFID tags use 64–96 bit identifiers, as standardized by EPCglobal.
--Solutions are required for enabling the addressing of RFID tags into IPv6 networks.
Naming
--In the traditional Internet any host address is identified by querying appropriate servers called domain name servers (DNS).
--Object Name Servers (ONS) are needed to map a reference to a description of a specific object and the related identifier, and vice versa.

Mobility Support
--There are several proposals for object addressing but none for mobility support in the IoT scenario.
--Scalability and Adaptability to heterogeneous technologies represent crucial problems in mobile scenario.

M2M Communication
Fig:The High-level ETSI M2M Reference Architecture.

End-to-end Reliability
--Existing transport protocols fail in the IoT scenarios since their connection setup and congestion control mechanisms may be useless.
--Furthermore, they require excessive buffering to be implemented in objects.
--As a consequence, TCP cannot be used efficiently for the end-to-end transmission control in the IoT.
Routing:
Several technical challenges make the design of routing protocols for M2M communications complex. 
--Most of the communicating objects are resource-constrained devices in terms of computation, memory and energy capacity.  
--The routing protocol must operate in very large networks.
--Communication technologies typically used for M2M communications are characterized by low data rates, frequent packet losses and time-varying channel conditions.

Standards
--EPCglobal
--6LoWPAN
--NFC
--ZigBee 
--M2M
 --There are several standardization efforts but they are not integrated in a comprehensive framework.

Traffic Characterization and QoS Support
--The IoT generates data traffic with patterns that are expected to be significantly different from those observed in the current Internet. 
--Accordingly, it will also be necessary to define new QoS requirements and support schemes to maintain reliable communication between the objects.

Security
The IoT is extremely vulnerable to attacks for several reasons. 
--First, often its components spend most of the time unattended and thus, it is easy to physically attack them.
--Second, most of the communications are wireless, which makes eavesdropping extremely simple. 
Finally, most of the IoT components are characterized by low capabilities and thus, they cannot implement complex schemes supporting security.
--The major problems related to security concern authentication and data integrity. 

--Authentication is difficult as it usually requires appropriate authentication infrastructures and servers that achieve their goal through the exchange of appropriate messages
--Data Integration is usually ensured by protecting data with password. However, the password lengths supported by IoT technologies are in most cases too short to provide strong levels of protection

Digital Forgetting
--All the information collected about a person by the IoT may be retained indefinitely as the cost of storage decreases. 
--Also, data mining techniques can be used to easily retrieve any information even after several years

Power Consumption
--Thousands of IoT devices signaling and sending data between one another takes a toll on power and CPU consumption. 
--With all this communication, we need minimal battery drain and low power consumption. It is not affordable to use up 100% of an IoT devices’s small and expensive embedded CPU power. 

Bandwidth
--In addition to power and CPU, bandwidth consumption is another challenge for IoT connectivity. 
--Bandwidth on a cellular network is expensive, especially with hundreds of thousands of IoT devices on a network sending request/response signals to your server.
--That’s a huge server issue and a requires a large scale server farm handling all this data. We need a lightweight network that can seamlessly transfer data between devices and servers.

Major Organization and their Objectives

Research Groups working with IoT
--MIT Auto-ID Lab & EPC Global.
--Stanford University
--Georgia Institute of Technology
--Cambridge Univ
--EPFL & ETH Zurich 
Information and Communication Systems Research Group
--Chemnitz University of Technology VSR Group
Nokia 
SAP
IBM
GOOGLE
AMBIENT
Metro Group
Siemens
Sun
Cisco
GE
Credit:Dr. Emmanuel Shubhakar Pilli 
Assistant Professor at MNIT jaipur
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