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Internet of Things

Introduction to Internet of things(IOT)

Content
  1. Introduction to IoT
  2. Evolution of IoT
  3. Why IoT?
  4. General Requirements 
  5. Communication Features 
  6. Technologies Involved
  7. Applications
What’s the Internet of Things
--Internet of Things (IoT) is a computing concept which provides interconnection between the uniquely identifiable devices. 
--By integrating several technologies like actuators and sensor networks, identification and tracking technology, enhanced communication protocol and distributed intelligence of smart objects, IoT enables communication between the real time objects present around us
--From any time ,any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything!



History
--In 1997, “The Internet of Things” is the seventh in the series of ITU Internet Reports originally launched in 1997 under the title “Challenges to the Network”.
--1999, Auto-ID Center founded in MIT
--2003, EPC Global founded in MIT
--2005, important technologies of the internet of things was proposed in WSIS conference.
--2008, First international conference of internet of things: The IOT 2008 was held at Zurich.

Cisco’s Prevision about IoT
--Cisco’s Prevision about In 2008 the number of things connected to the Internet was greater than the people living on Earth.
--Within 2020 the number of things connected to the Internet will be about 50 billion.

Evolution of Internet of Things

Gartner Report

Why Internet of Things?
--Dynamic control of industry and daily life
--Improve the resource utilization ratio 
--Better relationship between human and nature
--Forming an intellectual entity by integrating 
human society and physical systems
--Flexible configuration, P&P…
--Universal transport & internetworking
--Accessibility & Usability? 
--Acts as technologies integrator 

Visions of Internet of Things
IoT General Requirements

IoT Communication Features

Technologies Involved

--Communication
--Backbone
--Hardware
--Protocols
--Software
--Data Brokers/Cloud
--Platforms
--Machine Learning

Communication
RFID
-A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response.
-RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery assisted passive.
-Frequency: 120–150 kHz (LF), 13.56 MHz (HF), 433 MHz (UHF)
-Range: 10cm to 200m





EnOcean
-ISO/IEC14543-3-10 (Alliance)
-A The EnOcean technology is an energy harvesting wireless technology used primarily in building automation systems; but is also applied to other applications in industry, transportation, logistics and smart homes
-Frequency: 315 MHz, 868 MHz, 902 MHz
-Range: 300m Outdoor, 30m Indoors

NFC
-ISO/IEC18092 and ISO/IEC 14443-2,3,4
-NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 10 cm or less.
-NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive target.
-Frequency: 13.56 MHz
-Range: < 0.2 m
Bluetooth
-Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band.
-Frequency: 2.4GHz
-Range: 1-100m
WiFi (Alliance)
-The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards.
-Frequency: 2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz and 4.9/5.0 GHz
-Range: Common range is up to 100m but can be extended.
Weightless (SIG)
-Weightless is a proposed proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data between a base station and thousands of machines around it using White space with high levels of security.
Frequency:Varies with legislation (470 – 790MHz)
Range: Up to 10km
Data Rates: 1kbits/s to 10Mbits/s

GSM (Association)
-GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services.
-Frequency:Europe:900MHz & 1.8GHz , US: 1.9GHz & 850MHz
-Data Rates: 9.6 kbps

Additional: 
3G  
4G LTE 
Dash7 
Ethernet 
GPRS 
PLC / Powerline 
QR Codes, 
EPC 
WiMax 
X-10 
802.15.4 
Z-Wave 
Zigbee 

Backbone
IPv6
--Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
--IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, allowing 2128, or approximately 3.4×1038 addresses, or more than 7.9×1028 times as many as IPv4, which uses 32-bit addresses.
UDP and TCP
--With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as data-grams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths.
--The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is intended for use as a highly reliable host-to-host protocol between hosts in packet-switched computer communication networks.
6LoWPAN
--6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 
--The 6LoWPAN group has defined encapsulation and header compression mechanisms that allow IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks.
--It contain issues such as small packet sizes, low bandwidth, low power, large volumes of devices, unreliability from radio connectivity issues, battery drain, device lockups, and physical tampering.

Hardware
-Wireless SoC (system on chip)
-Self-contained,RF-certified module solutions that have TCP, UDP and IP on chip.
-Manufactures:  Gainspan, Wiznet, Nordic Semiconductor, TI
-Prototyping boards and platforms
--Arduino
--Raspberry Pi
--BeagleBone Black
-These are communities and prototyping platforms available that are making its possible to create your own Internet of Things project.
Sensors
-Sensors are used to obtain measurements of physical parameters such as the presence of certain biological entities (biosensors), wavelengths of light (image sensors), and flow velocity (thermal flow sensors) etc.

Software
Riot OS
-RIOT OS is an operating system for Internet of Things (IoT) devices. It is based on a microkernel and designed for energy efficiency, hardware independent development, a high degree of modularity

ThingsSquare Mist
-The Thingsquare Mist is open source firmware exceptionally lightweight, battle-proven, and works with multiple microcontrollers with a range of radios.


Protocols
CoAP
-Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is an application layer protocol that is intended for use in resource-constrained internet devices, such as WSN nodes.

MQTT
-Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is an open message protocol for M2M communications that enables the transfer of telemetry-style data in the form of messages from pervasive devices, along high latency or constrained networks, to a server or small message broker.

XMPP
-The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is an open technology for real-time communication.
-It powers a wide range of applications including instant messaging, presence, multi-party chat, voice and video calls, collaboration, lightweight middleware, content syndication, and generalized routing of XML data.

RESTful HTTP
-Representational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed systems such as the World Wide Web. REST has emerged as a predominant web API design model.

Data Brokers/Cloud Services
ThingWorx
-It provides a complete application design, runtime, and intelligence environment - allowing organizations to rapidly create M2M applications
EVRYTHNG
-The EVRYTHNG Engine provides high scale, industrial technology to create and serve millions of Active Digital Identities™ for a company’s products and other objects. These unique online profiles create a persistent, unique digital presence for any physical object on the Web.   
Sense
-Open.Sen.se an open platform for all those who want to imagine, prototype and test new Devices, Installations, Scenarios, Applications for this globally interconnected and immersive world.
Grok Engine
-Grok is software that breaks this bottleneck with three unique capabilities: a high level of automation in analyzing streaming data, the ability to learn continuously from data, and the ability to drive action from the output of Grok's data models.

Characteristics of Most Relevant Standardization Activities

Middleware Architecture of IoT

SOA based architecture for IoT middleware

Technology Roadmap of Internet of Things

Applications of IoT
Management
Retail
Food
Education
Pharmaceuticals
Security
Transport and Logistics
Smart Cities
Smart Manufacturing
Daily life and domotics
Management
-Data Management
-Waste Management
-Urban Planning
-Production Management

Retail
-Intelligent Shopping
-Bar Code in Retail
-Electronic Tags
Pharmaceuticals
-Intelligent tags for drugs
-Drug usage tracking
-Enable the emergency treatment to be given faster and more correct

FOOD
-Control geographical origin
-Food production management
-Nutrition calculations
-Prevent overproduction and shortage
-Control food quality, health and safety. 
EDUCATION
-School Administration
-Attendance Management
-Voting System
-Automatic Feedback 
-Instructional Technology
-Media 
-Information management
-Foreign language learning

AUTOBOT
-Diagnostics service for cars
-Alerts relatives in case of an accident
-Discovery service of car position
-Integrated with several web services
Transportation
-ConLock
-ContainerSafe
-Integration of light sensors GPS and GSM
Smart Cities
-Residential E-meters
-Smart street lights
-Pipeline leak detection
-Traffic control
-Surveillance cameras
-Centralized and integrated system control
Smart Manufacturing
-Flow optimization
-Real time inventory 
-Asset tracking
-Employee safety
-Predictive maintenance
-Firmware updates

Daily Life and Domotics
Credit:Dr. Emmanuel Shubhakar Pilli 
Assistant Professor at MNIT jaipur
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