Hardware Required in Architecting Internet of Things

Popular Hardware
Arduino’s Microcontroller
Raspberry Pi
BeagleBone Black
PanStamps
TinyDuino
RFduino
XinoRF
Pinoccio
CubieBoard
Nanode
WeIO
HackBerry
UDOO
OpenPicus Flyport WiFi
pcDuino

Arduino 
Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for anyone making interactive projects.
Arduino Board
Arduino senses the environment by receiving inputs from many sensors, and affects its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators.
Arduino Software
You can tell your Arduino what to do by writing code in the Arduino programming language and using the Arduino development environment.

Arduino Uno(Arduino Board)
Microcontroller: ATmega328
Operating Voltage: 5V
Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins: 6
DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
Flash Memory: 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328)
EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328)
Clock Speed:16 MHz
Length: 68.6 mm
Width: 53.4 mm
Weight: 25 g
Power: The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.

Arduino Yun(Arduino Board)

--Arduino Yun is the combination of a classic Arduino Leonardo with a Wifi system-on-a-chip running Linino.
--The Yun distinguishes itself from other Arduino boards in that it can communicate with the Linux distribution onboard, offering a powerful networked computer with the ease of Arduino. 
--In addition to Linux commands like cURL, you can write your own shell and python scripts for robust interactions.
Microcontroller: ATmega32u4
Operating Voltage: 5V
Input Voltage: 5V
Digital I/O Pins: 20
PWM Channels: 7
Analog Input Channels: 12
DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
Flash Memory: 32 KB (of which 4 KB used by bootloader)
SRAM: 2.5 KB
EEPROM: 1 KB
Clock Speed: 16 MHz
Length: 73 mm
Width: 53 mm
Weight: 32 g

Arduino Software 
Arduino 1.6.0 (Latest)
--It is an open-source Arduino Software (IDE) makes it easy to write code and upload it to the board. 
--It runs on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. 
--The environment is written in Java and based on Processing and other open-source software.
--This software can be used with any Arduino board.
Arduino 1.5.x
Arduino 1.0.x


Raspberry Pi

--The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse.
--The Raspberry Pi  has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been  used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations.
Products:
--Raspberry Pi Model B
--Raspberry Pi Model B+

Raspberry Pi Model B

--It is the higher-spec variant of the Raspberry Pi, with 512 MB of RAM, two USB ports and a 100mb Ethernet port.
--We can use it to learn about computing,  to power real-world projects (like home breweries, arcade  machines, musical root vegetables, robot tanks and much more), as a web server, a bitcoin miner, or we can just use it to play Minecraft.


Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+
Compare to Model B it has
More GPIO:The GPIO header has grown to 40 pins
More USB:We now have 4 USB 2.0 ports, compared to 2 on the Model B, and better hotplug and overcurrent behaviour.
Micro SD:The old friction-fit SD card socket has been replaced with a much nicer push-push micro SD version.
Lower power consumption:By replacing linear regulators with switching ones we’ve reduced power consumption by between 0.5W and 1W.
Better audio:The audio circuit incorporates a dedicated low-noise power supply.
Neater form factor: Aligned USB connectors with the board edge, moved composite video onto the 3.5mm jack, and added four squarely-placed mounting holes.

BeagleBone Black
--The BeagleBoard is a low-power open-source hardware single-board computer produced by Texas Instruments.
--The board was developed by a small team of engineers as an educational board that could be used in colleges around the world to teach open source hardware and software capabilities.
--The BeagleBone Black is the newest member of the BeagleBoard family.It is a lower-cost, high-expansion focused BeagleBoard using a low cost Sitara XAM3359AZCZ100 Cortex A8 ARM processor from Texas Instruments.
Features

PanStamps
--PanStamps are small wireless modules programmable from the Arduino IDE. 
--Each module contains an Atmega328p MCU and a Texas Instruments CC1101 RF interface, providing the necessary connectivity and processing power to create autonomous low-power wireless motes. 
--Operating voltage: from 2.5 VDC to 3.6 VDC
--Current consumption: 1 uA when in deep sleep mode.

TinyDuino
--The TinyCircuits TinyDuino is an Arduino compatible board in an ultra compact package. 
--Atmega328P processor 32KB Flash, 2KB RAM, 1KB EEPROM
--Arduino and LilyPad Compatible.
--20 I/Os (14 Digital, 6 Analog / Digital I/O) - All the signals on the Arduino Shield connectors are supported.


RFDuino
--A finger-tip sized, Arduino compatible, wireless enabled microcontroller, low cost enough to leave in all of the projects.
--Nordic 32 bit ARM Cortex-M0 processor
--7 GPIO and fully software selectable and can be remapped as you wish
--Connectivity: Bluetooth Low-Energy 4.0 built-in

XinoRF

 --The XinoRF is an Arduino UNO R3 compatible electronics development board with an onboard 2-wayCiseco SRF data radio, which supports over-the-air programming.
--ATmega328 P-PU micro-controller (32kb flash, 2kb RAM, 1kb EEPROM)
--Lots of I/O - 14 DIO (6 PWM, 6 analog, 40ma output)
--Over the air programming
--Connectivity: SRF-U wireless


Pinoccio

--A wireless, web-ready microcontroller with WiFi, LiPo battery, & built-in radio. An API to get your board talking to the Web right out of the box.
--Processor: Atmel ATmega256RFR2 with built-in radio
--17 digital I/O pins
--8 analog input pins
--16MHz MCU32k SRAM
--LiPo rechargeable battery
--On-board temperature sensor
--Connectivity: 802.15.4 & WiFi


CubicBoard
--The Cubieboard is a new Allwinner A10 based developer board, with a very wide range of IO options. The board is set apart by offering SATA and an extended pin interface for low level access to the SOC.
--1G ARM cortex-A8 processor, NEON, VFPv3, 256KB L2 cache
--512M/1GB DDR3 @480MHz
--96 extend pin including I2C, SPI, RGB/LVDS, CSI/TS, FM-IN, ADC, CVBS, VGA, SPDIF-OUT, R-TP.
--HDMI

Nanode
--Nanode is an open source Arduino-like board that has in-built web connectivity. 
--It is a low cost platform for creative development of web connected ideas. It's like an Arduino with an Ethernet shield built in. Easily upgradable to wireless by adding a 433Mhz radio kit
--ATmega328P microcontroller
--Up to 14 digital I/O lines
--32KB ISP flash memory
--SPI expansion memory (SRAM, Flash or FRAM)

WeIO
--WeIO is an innovative open source hardware and software platform for rapid prototyping and creation of wirelessly connected interactive objects using only popular web languages such as HTML5 or Python.
--WeIO is based on Python powered Tornado WebSocket server.
--16 MB Flash and 64 MB DDR2 RAM
--32 x GPIO • 1 x UART
--Connectivity: WiFi IEEE 802.11bgn 1x1 2.4 GHz 

Hackberry
--Based on the popular 1.2Ghz ARM Allwinner A10, the Hackberry A10 developer board is a powerful, hackable Android / Linux PC. The Hackberry A10 has both WiFi and Ethernet
--1.2GHz Allwinner A10 ARM Cortex A8
--DDR3 512MB / 1GB
--4GB NAND storage
--HDMI
--Connectivity: 10/100 Ethernet, Realtek 802.11n WiFi
UDOO
--UDOO is a multi development platform solution for Android, Linux, Arduino™ and Google ADK 2012. The board is designed to provide a flexible environment that allows to explore the new frontiers of the Internet of Things
--Freescale i.MX 6 ARM Cortex-A9 CPU Dua/Quad core 1GHz
--Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU
--RAM DDR3 1GB
--54 Digital I/O + Analog Input (Arduino-compatible R3 1.0 pinout)
--HDMI and LVDS + Touch (I2C signals)
--Connectivity: Ethernet, WiFi

OpenPicus Flyport WiFi
--Flyport is a powerful and low-cost system on module (SOM) with embeddedInternet-connectivity.
--Flyport transforms a sensor into an internet datalogger, a simple relay - into a remote controlled automation and much more.
--Microchip PIC24FJ256 16bi
--Low power - hibernation mode supported
--Peripherals: up to 18 Digital I/O, 4 Analog Inputs (10bits ADC), 4 UARTs, SPI, I2C
--Flash memory: 16Mbit external flash
--Connectivity: WiFi, Other options include Ethernet and GPRS
pcDuino 
--pcDuino  is a high performance, cost effective mini PC platform that runs PC like OS such as Ubuntu and Android ICS. The platform could run full blown PC like OS with easy to use tool chain and compatible with the popular Arduino ecosystem such as Arduino Shield
--1GHz ARM Cortex A8 CPU
--1GB DRAM
--Onboard Storage: 2GB Flash, microSD card
--Arduino-Style Peripheral Headers
--HDMI
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