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Evolution of Programming

Books
• Main Text
– Herbert Schildt: JAVA 2 - The Complete Reference,
TMH, Delhi
• Reference Texts
– E. Balagurusamy: Programming With Java: A Primer,
TMH, Delhi.
– Joseph O’Neil and Herbert Schildt: Teach Yourself
JAVA, TMH, Delhi
– Ivor Horton: Beginning Java 2, Wiley Publishing, USA

Evolution of Programming Paradigms
• Monolithic
• Procedural
• Structural
• Object-oriented
  
Monolithic Programming
• Single function
• Difficulty in debugging – maintaining code –
not re-usable 

Procedural Programming 
Organized in form of sub-routines
• All data items are global
• Control through
– GOTO
– Sub-routine
• Example
– ForTran
– COBOL

 Structural Programming
• Sub-set of procedural language
• Control structures to avoid GOTO
• Controlled scope of data
– Procedures have local data
• Emphasis on algorithm
Example
– C, Pascal

Object-oriented Programming System (OOPS)
• Implementation of “Rabbit”
Data:
– Hungry index
– Frightened index
– Location
Methods:
– Eat, Hide, Run, Dig 
Class
– Cover basic properties of concepts
– To closely resemble the real world
• Object: Instance of a class
• Object = Data + Method
• Class -> Generalization
• Object -> Specialization 
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