Advanced IP Scanner, Download & Install in Windows

Advanced IP Scanner, Download & Install in Windows

Advanced IP Scanner, Key Feature, Download  & Install

Advanced IP Scanner used to scan a network, Advanced IP Scanner is a free, fast and easy-to-use network scanner for Windows.

New Advanced IP Scanner is also compatible with windows 10. Advanced IP Scanner has compatibility certificates with Windows 7, Windows 8, and now with the new Windows 10.

Advanced IP Scanner can locate all the computers on your wired or wireless local network and scan their ports. The program provides easy access to various network resources, such as HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and shared folders.

Advanced IP Scanner also enables you to detect all network devices, including wireless devices and Wi-Fi routers. With Advanced IP Scanner, you can wake up and shut down remote groups of Windows machines.

Key Features of Advanced IP Scanner
  1. Easy access to network shares
  2. Remote control via RDP and Radmin
  3. MAC addresses detection
  4. Switching on/off computers remotely
  5. Export scan results to CSV
  6. No installation required
Download Advanced IP Scanner
Download Advanced IP Scanner to install it in your system, Click Here to download

Install Advanced IP Scanner
Download Advanced IP Scanner tool from above given link and click on .EXE file and follow the instruction to install it in your PC or system.

Supplementary Angles, Definition & Examples

Supplementary Angles, Properties, Examples and Solution

Angles are Supplementary Angle if Sum Of Two Angles 180 degrees. These two angles (135° and 45°) are Supplementary Angle, because sum of 135°+45°=180°.

  • Supplementary Angles together make a straight line, But the angles don't have to be together.
  • When the two angles sum 180°, they "Supplement" each other.
  • When two adjacent angles form a straight line, they are supplementary.
  • If one angle is known, its supplementary angle can be found by subtracting the measure of its angle from 180°. 

Fig 1 Example of Supplementary Angles, because sum of angle a and b are 180°. 


Fig 1: Supplementary Angles
Determine supplement Angle
To determine the Supplement, subtract the given angle from 180.
Example 1: If one angle is 50 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other.
Solution: 180 - 50 = 130°,  The Supplement of 50° is 130°.
Example 2: If one angle is 60 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other.
Solution: 180 - 60 = 120° ,  The Supplement of 60° is 120°.
Example 3: If one angle is 30 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are v to each other.
Solution: 180 - 30 = 150°,  The Supplement of 30° is 150°.
Example 4: If one angle is 15 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other.
Solution: 180 - 15 = 165° ,  The Supplement of 15° is 165°.
Some other examples of supplementary angle pairs
20 degrees and 160 degrees
40 degrees and 140 degrees
60 degrees and 120 degrees
70 degrees and 110 degrees
90 degrees and 90 degrees

Practice Problems
Example 1: The measure of angle 1 is 27 degree and angle 2 is 150 degree. Identify whether the angles are supplementary to each other or not?

Example 2: Let first angle is 12 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other?

Example 3: x and y are supplementary angles. Given x = 45˚, find the value y?

Example 4: The measure of angle 1 is 27 degree and angle 2 is 150 degree. Identify whether the angles are supplementary to each other or not?

Example 5: Let first angle is 22 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other?

Example 6: The measure of angle 1 is 10 degree and angle 2 is 120 degree. Identify whether the angles are supplementary to each other or not?

Example 7: Let first angle is 120 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other?

Example 8: The measure of angle 1 is 15 degree and angle 2 is 145 degree. Identify whether the angles are supplementary to each other or not?

Example 9: Let first angle is 12 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other?

Example 10: The measure of angle 1 is 30 degree and angle 2 is 135 degree. Identify whether the angles are supplementary to each other or not?


Practice Problems for Home Work 
Example 1 : The measure of angle 1 is 27 degree and angle 2 is 150 degree. Identify whether the angles are supplementary to each other or not?

Example 2 : Let first angle is 12 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are supplementary to each other?

Example 3 : x and y are supplementary angles. Given x = 45˚, find the value y
DBMS interview questions

DBMS interview questions

DBMS interview questions collection :

SQL DBMS Interview Questions for Freshers, Experienced for viva exams, company interview. List of DBMS Interview Questions for beginners and professionals asked in various exams but before we start, lets understand what is DBMS ? 

DBMS (database management system) is a system software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database.

  1. What is RDBMS ?
  2. What is cardinality?
  3. Describe the differences in the first through fifth normalization forms?
  4. When might someone denormalize their data?
  5. What are the elements of an ERD?
  6. Which SQL command is used to add a row?
  7. What are advantages of DBMS over traditional file based systems?
  8. What are super, primary, candidate and foreign keys?
  9. What is the difference between primary key and unique constraints?
  10. What is database normalization?
  11. What is SQL?
  12. What are the Advantages of SQL ?
  13. What are the differences between DDL, DML and DCL in SQL?
  14. What is the difference between having and where clause?
  15. What is order by clause?
  16. How to print duplicate rows in a table
  17. What is Join? 
  18. What is Identity?
  19. What is a view in SQL? How to create one
  20. What are the uses of view?
  21. What is a Trigger?
  22. What is a stored procedure?
  23. What is the difference between Trigger and Stored Procedure?
  24. What is a transaction? What are ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties?
  25. What are clustered and non-clustered Indexes?
  26. What is the difference between having and where clause?
  27. what is the exact difference between DDl and DML in DBMS?
  28. What are the differences between primary and foreign keys?
  29. What does SQL stand for?
  30. What is the difference between an inner and outer join?
  31. What port does SQL server run on?
  32. What is NoSQL?
  33. what is a field in a database ?
  34. What is a Record in a database ?
  35. What is a Table in a database ?
  36. What is a Composite Key ?
  37. What is a Composite Primary Key ?
  38. What are the advantages of DBMS?
  39. What is Query evaluation engine?
  40. What is Functional Dependency?
  41. What is Fully  and Partial Functional dependency?
  42. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)?
  43. What is query and meant by query optimization?
  44. What is an attribute?
  45. What is extension and intension?
  46. What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation?
  47. Name the sub-systems of a RDBMS?
  48. How do you communicate with an RDBMS?
  49. Describe concurrency control?
  50. Explain the difference between two and three-tier architectures?
  51. Describe the three levels of data abstraction?
  52. What is Data Independence?
  53. ow many types of relationship exist in database designing?
  54. What is a database transaction?
  55. What are properties of a transaction?
  56. What is a Database Lock ?
  57. What are the type of locks ? Explain
  58. What are the different type of normalization? Explain with example
  59. What is difference between DELETE & TRUNCATE commands?
  60. What are the different phases of Transaction?
  61. What is difference between SQL and SQL SERVER?
  62. What is Specialization?
  63. What is generalization?
  64. What is schema?
  65. What is the difference between ORDERBY and GROUPBY?
sql project | dbms project topics | DBMS management mini project

sql project | dbms project topics | DBMS management mini project

sql project | dbms project topics | DBMS management mini project

If you want to do mini project in database first of all you have to decide by which database you want to your project and using which language you will implement the database, and finally choose your topics
  1. MySql database
  2. Sql Server Database
  3. MS Access Database
  4. Oracle database
  5. MongoDB database
  6. SQLITE database.

You can implement these database using any programming language like:
  1. Java
  2. PHP
  3. Android Programming
  4. HTML/CSS
  5. Bootstrap
  6. Python etc.

If your project is coding a database engine, you could start with a very simple database engine that is the following:
  1. Development of an Online Course Portal for a campus  Dbms Project
  2. Real estate management system  
  3. Song/Video Scheduling Software
  4. Airline Reservation System
  5. Employee Management System
  6. University Management System
  7. Hospital Management System Dbms Project
  8. Messaging Software
  9. Computer Shoppe Management System
  10. Airline Reservation System
  11. Railway Reservation System 
  12. College Database Project
  13. Railway database management system project
  14. Library Management Database Project
  15. Payroll Database management system project
  16. Health Care Organization
  17. RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT DATABASE PROJECT
  18. Blood Donation System Database Project
  19. Art Gallery Database Project
  20. Hotel Management System Dbms Project
  21. School Management System Dbms Project
  22. DBMS for football tournament or any other sports
  23. Book Bank Management System
  24. Rental Shop Management System
  25. Automated Electricity bill generation
  26. Citizen Management System
  27. Any product’s shop management system
  28. Mall Management System
  29. Music/ Video Rental System or book/any product’s rental system
  30. Project Management System
  31. Teacher Monitoring System
  32. University Time-table generation System
  33. Gym Management System29. Movie ticket booking system (distributed database)
  34. Facebook/Orkut (single computer based)
  35. Virtual implementation of YouTube
  36. Computer Troubleshooting Intelligent System Dbms Project
  37. ATM Reporting system Dbms Project
  38. Orkut Java  Dbms Project
  39. Ant Colony Optimization Technique For Manets  Dbms Project
  40. Image Steganography Dbms Project
  41. J3ME and Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Based Full Duplex Automation System  Dbms Project
  42. DEMOS Online Quiz  Dbms Project
  43. Query Processing in Global Information Systems Dbms Project
  44. A Conceptual Graph Approach to Support Multiperspective Development Environments Dbms Project
  45. Congestion control in ATM-based Broadband ISDNs  Dbms Project
  46. Collaboration Server Dbms Project
  47. Web based Applications for Insurance Services Dbms Project
  48. Virtual Class Rooms Dbms Project
  49. Audio Manager Dbms Project
  50. Secure Group Communication Dbms Project
  51. Low Cost Wireless Internet Dbms Project
  52. Comparison & Simulation of Different Queuing Models Dbms Project
  53. Employee Tracking System Dbms Project
  54. Empirical Model of HTTP Network Traffic Dbms Project
  55. Crypto Acceleration Using Asynchronous FPGAs Dbms Project
  56. Electronic Mail Server Dbms Project
  57. SUDOKU Dbms Project
  58. Bluetooth Home Automation Dbms Project
  59. Chat Server Dbms Project
  60. Virtual Shopping Dbms Project
  61. BLUETOOTH HOTSPOT Dbms Project
  62. Threshold-Multisignature in Distributed System Dbms Project
  63. Trackerz Dbms Project
  64. UA Portal Dbms Project
  65. Survey Logics Dbms Project
  66. Mingle Box Dbms Project
  67. Telephone Billing System Dbms Project
  68. Vehicle Management System Dbms Project
  69. Universal Web Based File Coordinator Dbms Project
  70. Value card - Smart card based Loyalty Dbms Project
  71. Web Enabled Interactive, Dynamic And Authenticated Work Order System Dbms Project
  72. Student Attendance Management System Dbms Project
  73. Training & Placement Cell Management Dbms Project
  74. Trade Service Engine Dbms Project
  75. Online Bus Reservation Dbms Project
  76. Implementation Of a Mini Search Engine Dbms Project
  77. Implementation of Security in WAN Dbms Project
  78. Securable Network in Three-Party Protocols Dbms Project
  79. Web Mining Dbms Project
  80. Security System For DNS Using Cryptography Dbms Project
  81. Student Information System Dbms Project
  82. Generic SQL Explorer Dbms Project
  83. E-Mail Campaign System Dbms Project
  84. Log Reader Based Code Analyzer Dbms Project
  85. Partial Face Recognition Using Core features Of The Face Dbms Project
  86. Multi-Tasking Sockets Dbms Project
  87. Bank Management System Dbms Project
  88. Insurance Database Dbms Project
  89. Sliding Window Protocol Dbms Project
  90. File Compression Dbms Project
  91. Device Switching Using PC's Parallel Port Dbms Project
  92. Enhancing an Application Server to Support Available Components Dbms Project
  93. Bluetooth Dbms Project
  94. Dynamic Flash Interface Dbms Project
  95. Face Recognition in e-attendance Dbms Project
  96. Customer Complaint Report Software Dbms Project
  97. Implementation of OSPF on IPV6 Dbms Project
  98. Accelerating Ranking System Using Webgraph Dbms Project
  99. Pro-net Communication Dbms Project
  100. Chat Server and Client Application Dbms Project
  101. An Intelligent Eye Dbms Project
  102. Result Alert System With E-mail and SMS Dbms Project
  103. Railway Route Optimization System Dbms Project
  104. Online Examination System Dbms Project
  105. Face Detection Using Epitomic Analysis Dbms Project
  106. Implementation of Software Management and Maintenance Dbms Project
  107. Portable Media Player Dbms Project
  108. Bug Tracking System Dbms Project
  109. Rich Internet Application for Weekly Automatic College Timetable Generation Dbms Project
  110. Design And Analysis Of Sense Amplifier Dbms Project
  111. Cold Boot Attack Dbms Project
  112. XML Enabled Wrapper Construction Dbms Project
  113. Digital Diary Dbms Project
  114. Intruder Detection System Over Abnormal Internet Sequence Dbms Project
  115. Digital System Architecture Dbms Project
  116. ER Diagram Maker Dbms Project
  117. Early Congestion Indication Dbms Project
  118. SMTP Mail Server Dbms Project
  119. Support Vector Machines For Face Recognition Dbms Project
  120. Inventory Management System Dbms Project
  121. Creepy Crawler System Dbms Project
  122. Bandwidth-Allocation-for-Distributed-Algorithm Dbms Project
  123. Network Monitoring for Remote Task Executor Dbms Project
  124. GPS Rover Dbms Project

complementary angles definition examples

Complementary angles are two angles that have a sum of 90° (Right angle example of Complementary angles), when sum of two angles 90°, they complement each other. In Right triangle one angle of 90° and two other angles sum of 90°, So Right angle Example of Complementary angles.

Figure 1 example of complementary angles,because Sum of angle A and B equal to 90°.
A complementary angle is made up of two acute angles.
Figure 1: Complementary angles
Figure 2: Complementary angles
These two angles in Figure 2 are complementary, because 60 + 30 = 90.Complementary angles form a right angle (L shape) and have a sum of 90 degrees.

Determine Complement Angle
To determine the complement, subtract the given angle from 90.
Example 1: If one angle is 48 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other.
Solution: 90 - 48 = 42°,  The complement of 48° is 42°.
Example 2: If one angle is 15 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other.
Solution: 90 - 60 = 30° ,  The complement of 60° is 30°.
Example 3: If one angle is 30 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other.
Solution: 90 - 30 = 60°,  The complement of 30° is 60°.
Example 4: If one angle is 15 degree, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other.
Solution: 90 - 15 = 50° ,  The complement of 15° is 75°.
Practice Problems
Example 1: The measure of angle 1 is 27 degree and angle 2 is 60 degree. Identify whether the angles are complementary to each other or not?

Example 2: Let first angle is 12 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other?

Example 3: x and y are complementary angles. Given x = 62˚, find the value y?

Example 4: The measure of angle 1 is 15 degree and angle 2 is 160 degree. Identify whether the angles are complementary to each other or not?

Example 5: Let first angle is 30 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other?

Example 6: x and y are complementary angles. Given w = 75˚, find the value z?
Example 7: The measure of angle 1 is 45 degree and angle 2 is 90 degree. Identify whether the angles are complementary to each other or not?

Example 8: Let first angle is 60 degrees, find the second angle if the two angles are complementary to each other?

Example 9: x and y are complementary angles. Given a = 90˚, find the value b?

Example 10: The measure of angle 1 is 120 degree and angle 2 is 60 degree. Identify whether the angles are complementary to each other or not?

isosceles triangle | right | obtuse | acute isosceles triangle

Definition of An isosceles triangle
A Triangle with two equal side is an Isosceles Triangle (if two side of triangle equal in length then two angles of triangle also equal), So now Definition is like "A Triangle with two equal side and Two equal Angles" is an isosceles triangle. 

Length a=b and angle α is equal(see in below picture/image)

isosceles triangle theorem
If angles, then sides: If two angles of a triangle are congruent, then the sides opposite those angles are congruent.
If sides, then angles: If two sides of a triangle are congruent, then the angles opposite those sides are congruent.

Area and Perimeter of isosceles Triangle
perimeter of isosceles triangle=2a+b
Area of isosceles Triangle=1/2*b*h
here h=height of isosceles Triangle,b=base of isosceles Triangle



Types Of isosceles Triangles
acute isosceles triangle:
An ACUTE isosceles(all angles are acute) triangle contains three acute angles (each angle of an acute triangle is less than 90 degrees).sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees. An acute triangle may be isosceles, equilateral, or scalene.

obtuse isosceles triangle:
Obtuse isosceles triangles have one angle that is greater than 90° degrees.(Obtuse triangles have one obtuse angle).sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees.An obtuse triangle may be scalene or isosceles.

right isosceles triangle:
The right isosceles triangle has one 90 degree angle and two acute (< 90 degree) angles.sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees.A right triangle may be scalene or isosceles.

Obtuse triangles | Obtuse Angle

Obtuse triangles have one angle that is greater than 90° degrees.(Obtuse triangles have one obtuse angle).
sum of the angles of an obtuse triangle is always 180 degrees.
An obtuse triangle will have one and only one obtuse angle. The other two angles are acute angles. 
The sum of the two angles other than the obtuse angle is less than 90º. 
An obtuse triangle may be scalene or isosceles.
Figure:Obtuse triangle
Obtuse Angle Defintion

An Obtuse Angle is more than 90° but less than 180°.

acute triangle | Acute Angle

An ACUTE (all angles are acute) triangle contains three acute angles (each angle of an acute triangle is less than 90 degrees).

Acute Angle Definition
The acute angle is the small angle which is less than 90° but more than zero degrees
sum of the angles of an acute triangle is always 180 degrees.
An acute triangle may be isosceles,scalene or equilateral.
The right triangle has one 90 degree angle and two acute (< 90 degree) angles 
An equilateral triangle is a specific type of acute triangle where the three angles have an equal measure of 180°/3 = 60°.
Figure:Acute Triangle

right triangle | Right Angle | Special right triangles

The right triangle has one 90 degree angle and two acute (< 90 degree) angles.
sum of the angles of a right triangle is always 180 degrees.
A right triangle may be scalene or isosceles.
Figure:Right Triangle
special right triangles
There are two "special" right triangles, the 45º- 45º- 90º triangle and the 30º- 60º- 90º triangle.  The "special" nature of these triangles is their ability to yield exact answers instead of decimal approximations when dealing with trigonometric functions.

Right Angle
A right angle is an internal angle which is equal to 90°.

Coterminal Angles | find coterminal angle

Two angles are coterminal angle if they are drawn in the standard position and both have their terminal sides in the same location, To find negative and positive coterminal Angles with a given angle, you can subtract and add 360° if the angle is given in degrees or 2π if the angle is given in radians.See below diagram of Coterminal Angles, in which given angle 60° and Coterminal Angles of 60° is (60°-360°) and (360°+60°), negtive and positive coterminal respectivly.
Angles that are coterminal have the same value for function like sin, cos, tan, 60°, 420° and -300° are coterminal, and so sin60°, sin420° and sin(-300°) all have the same value(√3/2).
Fig: Coterminal Angles 

Examples of Coterminal Angles
Q.1 Find a positive and a negative angle coterminal with a 65° angle?
Ans. 65°−360°=−295° and 65°+360°=425°, −295° angle and a 425° angle are coterminal with a 65° angle. 
Q.2 Find a positive and a negative angle coterminal with a 45° angle?
Ans. 45°−360°=−315° and 45°+360°=405°, −315° angle and a 405° angle are coterminal with a 45° angle.
Q.3 Find a positive and a negative angle coterminal with a 95° angle?
Ans. 95°−360°=−265° and 65°+360°=455°, −265° angle and a 455° angle are coterminal with a 95° angle. 
Q.4 Find a positive and a negative angle coterminal with a 15° angle?
Ans. 15°−360°=−345° and 15°+360°=475°, −345° angle and a 475° angle are coterminal with a 15° angle.
Q.5 Find a positive and a negative angle coterminal with a 90° angle?
Ans. 90°−360°=−270° and 90°+360°=450°, −270° angle and a 450° angle are coterminal with a 90° angle. 
Q.6 Find a positive and a negative angle coterminal with a 30° angle?
Ans. 30°−360°=−330° and 30°+360°=390°, −330° angle and a 390° angle are coterminal with a 30° angle.

incenter of a Right | Acute | Obtuse Triangle

Definition:Triangle’s three angle bisectors(A bisector cuts an angle into two equal parts) intersect at a point and that point Known as incenter of a triangle.

Properties of incentre:
Draw a circle inside triangle(incircle), the largest circle that will fit inside the triangle and touch all three sides and centre of circle is known as an incenter of a triangle.

Triangle's incenter is always inside the triangle, it will never go outside the triangle
Incenter is equidistant(distance is equal) from all the sides of the triangle. 
The radius of the incircle is the length of the perpendicular line drawn from the Incenter to any side 

Figure 1: incenter and incircle of a triangle
Incentre and Incircle of Acute Triangle:
Acute Triangle’s three angle bisectors(A bisector cuts an angle into two equal parts) intersect at a point and that point is incenter of an Acute triangle.The largest circle that will fit inside the Acute triangle and touch all three sides Known as Incircle of Acute Triangle.
Figure 2: incenter and incircle of an acute triangle

Incentre and Incircle of Obtuse Triangle:
Obtuse Triangle’s three angle bisectors(A bisector cuts an angle into two equal parts) intersect at a point and that point is incenter of an Obtuse triangle.The largest circle that will fit inside the Obtuse triangle and touch all three sides Known as Incircle of Obtuse Triangle.
Figure 3: incenter and incircle of an obtuse triangle

Incentre and Incircle of Right Triangle:
Right Triangle’s three angle bisectors(A bisector cuts an angle into two equal parts) intersect at a point and that point is incenter of a Right triangle.The largest circle that will fit inside the Right triangle and touch all three sides Known as Incircle of Right Triangle.
Figure 4: incenter and incircle of a right triangle
Description
The incenter is the point of intersection of the three angle bisectors. The angle bisectors of a triangle are each one of the lines that divide an angle into two equal angles. The incenter is the center of the circle inscribed in the triangle.

equilateral triangle | equiangular | acute triangle

Definition of Equilateral Triangle (समभुज त्रिकोण):
Equilateral Triangle is a Triangle in which all three sides are equal in lenght,equilateral triangle are also equiangular(angles are equal to each other, which is possible if all angles is equal to 60 degree).Now we can define equilateral triangle as "a triangle in which Angles and lenght of three side is equal", given picture/image of equilateral triangle below

Area of an equilateral triangle:
s is the length of one side of the triangle, and 
Area
 of equilateral triangle=
3
4
s
2

Height/altitude of equilateral triangle Formula=s/2 x √3
Perimeter of equilateral triangle Formula=3s

Types of equilateral triangle
acute equilateral triangle:
An ACUTE equilateral(all angles are acute) triangle contains three acute angles (each angle of an acute triangle is less than 90 degrees).sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees. An acute triangle may be isosceles, equilateral, or scalene.

equiangular triangle:
In an equiangular triangle, all the angles are equal—each angle equal to 60 degrees. An equiangular triangle is a kind of acute triangle, and equiangular triangle is always equilateral.

Is it possible to have a equilateral right triangle?
No(because in right triangle all angles are not equal)
Is it possible to have a equilateral obtuse triangle?
No(because in obtuse triangle all angles are not equal)

scalene triangle | acute | obtuse | right scalene triangle

what is a scalene triangle(विषमभुज त्रिभुज):
Simple definition of scalene triangle is: A Triangle in which No equal angles and no equal sides

As you can see in above triangle all sides with different lengths(AB,BC,CA not equal in lenghts) and Angles also not equal(68,71,41), so a triangle with no equal sides and Angles called scalene triangle(see above image/picture of scalene triangle).sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees.

Area of a scalene triangle:
s = (a + b + c) / 2
area of scalene triangle = sqrt(s * (s - a) * (s - b) * (s - c))

Types Of scalene Triangles:
acute scalene triangle:
An ACUTE scalene(all angles are acute) triangle contains three acute angles (each angle of an acute triangle is less than 90 degrees).sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees.An acute triangle may be isosceles,scalene or equilateral.

obtuse scalene triangle:
Obtuse scalene triangles have one angle that is greater than 90° degrees.(Obtuse triangles have one obtuse angle).sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees.An obtuse triangle may be scalene or isosceles.

right scalene triangle:
The right scalene triangle has one 90 degree angle and two acute (< 90 degree) angles.sum of the angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees.A right triangle may be scalene or isosceles.

HDFS-Hadoop Distributed File System

HDFS(Hadoop Distributed File System)

HDFS is a filesystem designed for storing very large files with streaming data access patterns,running on clusters of commodity hardware

HDFS is a filesystem written in Java
--Based on Google’s GFS
Sits on top of a native filesystem
--ext3, xfs etc
Provides redundant storage for massive amounts of data
--Using cheap, unreliable computers
HDFS performs best with a ‘modest’ number of large files
--Millions, rather than billions, of files
--Each file typically 100Mb or more
Files in HDFS are ‘write once’
--No random writes to files are allowed
HDFS is optimized for large, streaming reads of files
--Rather than random reads


How Files Are Stored
Files are split into blocks.
Data is distributed across many machines at load time
--Different blocks from the same file will be stored on different machines
--This provides for efficient MapReduce processing
Blocks are replicated across multiple machines, known as DataNodes
--Default replication is three-fold
  – i.e., each block exists on three different machines
A master node called the NameNode keeps track of which blocks make up a file, and where those 
--blocks are located
--Known as the metadata

How Files Are Stored:Example

NameNode holds metadata for the data files.
DataNodes hold the actual blocks
--Each block is replicated three times on the cluster


HDFS:Point To Note
When a client application wants to read a file:
--It communicates with the NameNode to determine which blocks make up the file,and which DataNodes those blocks reside on
--It then communicates directly with the DataNodes to read the data


Big Data Analysis With HDFS

HDFS Concepts: Blocks, Replicas,Namenode, Datanode
NameNode manages the File system Namespace


HDFS ARCHITECTURE


Command line interface

Hdfs File Read


Hdfs File Write



Start-up process
-Namenode enters Safemode
  --Replication does not occur in Safemode
-Each Datanode sends Heartbeat 
-Each Datanode sends Blockreport
  --Lists all HDFS data blocks
-Namenode creates Blockmap from Blockreports
-Namenode exits Safemode
-Replicate any under-replicated blocks
Checkpoint process
-Performed by Namenode
-Two versions of FsImage
   --One stored on disk
   --One in memory
-Applies all transactions in EditLog to in-memory FsImage
-Flushes FsImage to disk
-Truncates EditLog
Namenode memory concern
For fast access Namenode keeps all block metadata in-memory
--The bigger the cluster - the more RAM required
--Best for millions of large files (100mb or more) rather than billions
--Will work well for clusters of 100s machines
Hadoop 2+
--Namenode Federations
--Each namenode will host part of the blocks
--Horizontally scale the Namenode
--Support for 1000+ machine clusters
--Yahoo! runs 50,000+ machines
For more detail visit Apache Hadoop
Namenode’s fault tolerance
Namenode daemon process must be running at all times
--If process crashes then cluster is down
Namenode is a single point of failure
--Host on a machine with reliable hardware (ex. sustain a diskfailure)
--Usually is not an issue
Hadoop 2+
--High Availability Namenode
--Active Standby is always running and takes over in case main namenode fails
--Still in its infancy